Numbers

With numbers it is possible to perform various mathematical operations.

In [1]: 1 + 2
Out[1]: 3

In [2]: 1.0 + 2
Out[2]: 3.0

In [3]: 10 - 4
Out[3]: 6

In [4]: 2**3
Out[4]: 8

Division int and float:

In [5]: 10/3
Out[5]: 3.3333333333333335

In [6]: 10/3.0
Out[6]: 3.3333333333333335

The round() function - round a number to a given precision in decimal digits:

In [9]: round(10/3.0, 2)
Out[9]: 3.33

In [10]: round(10/3.0, 4)
Out[10]: 3.3333

Remainder of division:

In [11]: 10 % 3
Out[11]: 1

Comparison operators

In [12]: 10 > 3.0
Out[12]: True

In [13]: 10 < 3
Out[13]: False

In [14]: 10 == 3
Out[14]: False

In [15]: 10 == 10
Out[15]: True

In [16]: 10 <= 10
Out[16]: True

In [17]: 10.0 == 10
Out[17]: True

The int() function allows converting to int type. The second argument can specify number system:

In [18]: a = '11'

In [19]: int(a)
Out[19]: 11

If you specify that string should be read as a binary number, the result is:

In [20]: int(a, 2)
Out[20]: 3

Convert to int from float:

In [21]: int(3.333)
Out[21]: 3

In [22]: int(3.9)
Out[22]: 3

The bin() function produces a binary representation of a number (note that the result is a string):

In [23]: bin(8)
Out[23]: '0b1000'

In [24]: bin(255)
Out[24]: '0b11111111'

Similarly, function hex() produces a hexadecimal value:

In [25]: hex(10)
Out[25]: '0xa'

And, of course, you can do several changes at the same time:

In [26]: int('ff', 16)
Out[26]: 255

In [27]: bin(int('ff', 16))
Out[27]: '0b11111111'

For more complex mathematical functions, Python has a math module:

In [28]: import  math

In [29]: math.sqrt(9)
Out[29]: 3.0

In [30]: math.sqrt(10)
Out[30]: 3.1622776601683795

In [31]: math.factorial(3)
Out[31]: 6

In [32]: math.pi
Out[32]: 3.141592653589793