Working with own repository#

This chapter covers how to work with repository on your local machine.

Creating a Github repository#

To create a Github repository you need:

  • log in to GitHub

  • In upper right corner press plus and select “New repository” to create a new repository

  • Name of repository should be entered in window that appears

You can put “Initialize this repository with a README”. This will create a file that only contains repository name.

Cloning a Github repository#

To work locally with repository, it should be cloned.

Use git clone command to clone repository:

$ git clone ssh://
Cloning into 'online-2-natasha-samoylenko'...
remote: Counting objects: 241, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (191/191), done.
remote: Total 241 (delta 43), reused 239 (delta 41), pack-reused 0
Receiving objects: 100% (241/241), 119.60 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (43/43), done.
Checking connectivity... done.

Compared to this command, you need to change:

  • pyneng user name for your Github user name

  • online-2-natasha-samoylenko repository name for your Github repository

As a result, in current directory in which git clone was executed, a directory with name of repository will appear, in my case - “online-2-natasha-samoylenko”. This directory now contains the contents of Github repository.

Working with repository#

The previous command not only copied repository to use it locally, but also configured Git accordingly:

  • Folder .git was created

  • All repository data is downloaded

  • Downloaded all changes that were in repository

  • Github repository is configured as a remote for local repository

Now you have a complete local Git repository where you can work. Typically, sequence of steps will be as follows:

  • Before starting, synchronize local content with Github using git pull command

  • Modifying repository files

  • Adding modified files to staging with “git add” command

  • Commit changes using git commit command

  • Transferring local changes to Github repository with git push command

When working with tasks at work and at home, it is necessary to pay special attention to first and last step:

  • The first step is to update local repository

  • The last step - load changes to Github

Synchronizing local repository with remote repository#

All commands are executed inside repository directory (in example above - online-2-natasha-samoylenko).

If contents of local repository are the same as those of remote repository, output will be:

$ git pull
Already up-to-date.

If there were changes, output would be something like this:

$ git pull
remote: Counting objects: 5, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (1/1), done.
remote: Total 5 (delta 4), reused 5 (delta 4), pack-reused 0
Unpacking objects: 100% (5/5), done.
From ssh://
   89c04b6..fc4c721  master     -> origin/master
Updating 89c04b6..fc4c721
 exercises/03_data_structures/ | 2 ++
 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+)

Adding new files or changes to existing files#

If you want to add a specific file (in this case,, you need to enter git add command. All files of current directory are added by git add . command.


You should specify message when you are running a commit. It is better if message is with meaning, rather than just “update” or similar. Commit could be done by a command similar to git commit -m "Tasks 4.1-4.3 are completed".

Push on GitHub#

Command “git push” is used to load all local changes to Github:

$ git push origin master
Counting objects: 5, done.
Compressing objects: 100% (5/5), done.
Writing objects: 100% (5/5), 426 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done.
Total 5 (delta 4), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (4/4), completed with 4 local objects.
To ssh://
   fc4c721..edcf417  master -> master

Before executing git push you can run git log -p/origin.. - it will show what changes you are going to add to your repository on Github.